Supervising employees and assuming leadership mean that among other things you are taking accountability for the work productivity of others. If you are responsible for the work productivity of others, then it is in your best interest to provide them with the tools and resources they need to get the job done. This might mean capital, physical resources such as equipment, appropriate staffing levels, and other. It also means the ability of those persons under your direction to handle, even flourish in the assigned tasks. To do so takes the right skills, attitudes, and behaviors. The right mix of skills and attitudes combine to form self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy beliefs are those in which an individual acknowledges confidence in their belief to perform a certain behavior, in this case, one or more job responsibilities.
Farrell et al examined the self-efficacy of pharmacists was enhanced following their participation in an online learning module.1 Specifically, the training was to help them incorporate the ADAPT (ADapting pharmacists’ skills and Approaches to maximize drug Therapy effectiveness) model into practice. The program was designed to enable pharmacists to enhance their patient care and collaboration skills. This included readings and exercises on teamwork and group dynamics, motivational interviewing, assertiveness, delineating task, prioritization of risks, pharmacoepidemiolgical principles, and effective delegation. A survey and interviews of ADAPT graduates saw their confidence rise in all aspects tests as a result of the program, including: providing medication reviews, collaborating with other health professionals, interviewing patients, making evidence-based decisions, documenting care, and developing care plans. This resulted in an improvement, or increase among those pharmacists in the number of billable services they provided and actual increases in reimbursement for billable services by pharmacists in most provinces (in Canada), with the exception of a couple provinces where reimbursement mechanisms were simply too restrictive at the time.
The ADAPT program was demonstrated to be successful. It is an online offering. Likewise, there are many such programs available to pharmacists, including in the U.S., including but not limited to advanced medication therapy management (MTM) training, immunization certification, and leadership courses. Many of these are geared toward the working professional, or in other words, offered through online study or on weekends, or through self-direction. Pharmacy managers should not only take advantage of some of these offerings, themselves, but offer access, even incent pharmacy staff to take part in self-development activities that can promote self-efficacy. It might end up meaning success in diversifying the pharmacy’s revenue streams, but at the very least, it will result in improved competence and effectiveness, along with a clear message to those employees that you are a supportive leader.
Additional information about Leadership and Organizational Structure and Behavior, and Implementing Value-Added Pharmacy Services can be found in Pharmacy Management: Essentials for All Practice Settings, 5e. If you or your institution subscribes to AccessPharmacy, use or create your MyAccess Profile to sign-in to Pharmacy Management: Essentials for All Practice Settings, 5e. If your institution does not provide access, ask your medical librarian about subscribing.
1Farrell B, Archibald D, Pizzola L, et al. Impact on confidence and practice: How the ADAPT online patient care skills program made a difference for pharmacists. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019;15(10):1251-1258.