Abnormal Pap Smear

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Abnormal Pap smear. The pink and blue objects are squamous epithelial cells; abnormalities include the doubling of the nuclei and a clear area around them. Most abnormal smears in young women are due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; when persistent, it is considered an important factor in the development of cancer of the cervix.

Read more about human papillomavirus (HPV) and abnormal pap smears:

Sherris Medical Microbiology, 7e > Chapter 19. Papilloma and Polyoma Viruses > Papillomavirus Disease

CURRENT Diagnosis and Treatment Pediatrics: Chapter 10. Immunization > Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e: Chapter 193. Human Papillomavirus Infections Williams Obstetrics, 25e: Chapter 65. Sexually Transmitted Infections > Human Papillomavirus


Melanie Allison, DNP, MSN, RN, ACNP-BC

Executive Editorial Specialist, McGraw-Hill Education

Melanie Allison is the Executive Manager of Education & Learning with McGraw Hill. She earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree and Post-Master’s Certificate in Nursing Education from The Johns Hopkins University. She earned her Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree, specializing as an acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP), from Vanderbilt University. Melanie has more than 20 years of experience as a registered nurse and nurse practitioner in adult cardiology and advanced lipid management. She is a part-time faculty member at a top school of nursing where she has taught for more than 15 years.

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