Mechanisms of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and abnormalities in diabetes. Glucose and other nutrients regulate insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cell. Glucose is transported by a glucose transporter (GLUT1 and/or GLUT2 in humans, GLUT2 in rodents); subsequent glucose metabolism by the beta cell alters ion channel activity, leading to insulin secretion. The SUR receptor is the binding site for some drugs that act as insulin secretagogues. Mutations in the events or proteins underlined are a cause of monogenic forms of diabetes. ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; IAPP, islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin; SUR, sulfonylurea receptor.
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