Chronic dialysis is associated with an increased risk of healthcare-associated pneumonia caused by which of the following?
A. Acinetobacter species
B. Candida species
C. Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA)
D. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
E. P aeruginosa
The answer is C. (Chap. 121) There are multiple clinical conditions associated with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Residence in a nursing home or extended-care facility, hospitalizations for 2 or more days in the prior 3 months, and current hospitalizations that have been 48 hours or longer are associated with HCAP due to methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), P aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. HCAP due to P aeruginosa is also associated with antibiotic therapy in the preceding 3 months. Chronic dialysis, home infusion therapy, and home wound care place patients at risk for HCAP due to MRSA. Having a family member with a multidrug-resistant infection is associated with HCAP due to both MRSA and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.